Metabolic Surgery and Its Effects for Weight Loss

Bariatric surgery is well recognized for inducing dramatic weight loss in morbidly obese individuals. Over time, however, clinical evidence has shown that this particular surgery is also beneficial for certain metabolic and neuroendocrine conditions. As a result, traditional bariatric surgery has provided the rationale for a new and distinct surgical model, which is known as “metabolic surgery.”

The primary goal of the new model is to prevent, treat, improve or ameliorate Type 2 Diabetes and other metabolic syndrome conditions. In contrast, inducing weight loss is the primary aim of traditional bariatric surgery.

Types of Metabolic Surgical Methods

There are several metabolic surgical procedures in use today, and others are on the horizon. Thanks to laparoscopy, most of the surgeries are safe, less invasive and require fewer incisions, which leads to less pain, discomfort and shorter hospital stays. Additionally, even individuals who are 55 years old and older can enjoy the benefits (Chih¬Kun Huang, Amit Garg, Hsin-Chih Kuao,Po¬Chih Chang and Ming¬Che Hsin, 2015).

According to Rubino (2013), some of the common methods that improve or resolve the risk factors of metabolic syndrome are:

• Roux-en-Y gastric Bypass (RYGB)
• Sleeve gastrectomy (SG)
• Biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)
• Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB)
• Duodenaljejunal bypass (DJB)

Newer no-incision through the mouth metabolic surgeries for T2DM include Transoral gastroplasty (TOGA), which is a technique that is currently under clinical trial, and the Endobarrier Sleeve, which is an evidence-based and successful method. Other procedures include Ileal Interposition (II), Ileal Interposition in combination with Sleeve Gastrectomy (IISG) and Diverted Sleeve Gastrectomy (IIDSG).

According to Payab and Hasani-Ranjbar (2015), these procedures are not limited to sufferers of morbid obesity but are also used for non-obese individuals with T2DM. In these surgeries, the upper part of the stomach is removed. Additionally, through a surgical repositioning method, a section of the ileum is removed and shifted to either the duodenal or the jejunal areas. This combination leads to a decrease in the hormone Ghrelin that is associated with insulin resistance. Plasma glucose levels are also decreased.

In conclusion, according to Laing (2015), current metabolic surgical procedures are safer and have very low morbidity and mortality rates. Furthermore, clinical evidence supports their positive benefits. As with all surgical procedures, however, there are associated risks involved. That is why it is extremely important that individuals thoroughly research each procedure and discuss them fully with their healthcare providers to determine which approach is best for their particular situation.


The Machinations of Cellulite

cellulite skin on her legs

While it’s possible to find slimming pills in Singapore that feature safe and naturally derived ingredients, it’s vital that we look to the source of cellulite to extinguish it. Cellulite is merely the appearance of subcutaneous fat puckering beneath the skin. It’s a natural effect that isn’t harmful, but if you wish to lessen its appearance, there are a few key aspects to consider.

healthy and junk food concept - woman with fruits rejecting hamburger and cake

Diet – Nurturing the Machine

The most important part of any fitness plan will involve what you’re eating. Our mind and body runs on the energy we consume, so it’s only logical that a diet inundated with chemicals and preservatives will make us sluggish and pallid. Getting rid of cellulite must start from the source, so try to limit your intake of high fat foods, particularly saturated animal fats.

Of course, you don’t want to cut out fat entirely, because it’s actually very good for our skin’s health and elasticity. A weight loss diet can be effective, but it’s important to adopt habits you can keep long term. Try to eat wholesome fat sources from nuts, seeds and fruits like avocado, which are rich in essential fatty acids. In general, keeping your diet focused on vegetables, leafy greens and whole grains will help you shed excess body fat so that cellulite will diminish.

hiit-workout_0 Exercise – Training, Maintenance and Fluidity of Motion

Sufficiently training the body is also important if you want to expunge cellulite and look your most lithe and striking. When we don’t challenge our muscles, they become weak and flaccid. Strength training can help them increase in density, size and strength so that they will look more defined under the skin. When your muscles grow in health and efficiency, subcutaneous fat will be pressed more firmly against that muscle, creating a tighter, smoother appearance.

Simple body weight exercises such as lunges and squats are excellent for troublesome thigh and buttocks cellulite, but cardio is also important for overall fat and calorie burn. Moderate to high intensity aerobic exercise will help shed vestiges of cellulite while also conditioning your heart, lungs and circulation.

If you’re just starting out, walking is a simple, free and effective way to begin your fitness routine. What’s important is doing something you can keep up with consistently, so try to find a fun balance of activities you enjoy. Dancing, swimming, cycling, yoga, and martial arts are all great examples.


Hydration – Flush the Gears, Purify the Spirit

There is no life without water, it is a fundamental need. When we aren’t properly hydrated, our tissues have a tendency to swell and retain toxins that can exacerbate the appearance of cellulite. Most people don’t drink the recommended amount of water per day and are actually dehydrated without even realizing it. To combat cellulite and restore the clarity of your body and mind, try making a commitment to elevating your water intake each day, especially after strenuous activities and during exposure to high temperatures.

Ultimately, getting rid of cellulite completely may be a fruitless endeavor. Women naturally have a higher body fat percentage than men, and their skin is more pliant. Having a bit of cellulite is expected and healthy, so don’t despair if you can’t make every surface of your skin smooth. As long as you are properly feeding your body and keeping it in motion, your beauty will bloom, blossom and flourish as the Earth intended.


Star Skincare Ingredients to Treat Skin Pigmentation


The goal of every beauty routine is to help you feel comfortable in your own skin. While makeup goes a long way towards covering flaws and perfecting discolourations, it is your skincare that will give you the best long-term results.

Skin pigmentation is one of the most common concerns women of all ages struggle with. Hyperpigmentation comes in a few forms. The first is post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, or PIH. This is related to brown spots and includes discolourations left behind by acne or minor injuries. The second is post-inflammatory erythema, or PIE, which is typically red or purple scarring left behind by inflammation. Chemical burns, infected acne and sunburn can all contribute to PIE. Other skin pigmentation issues include melasma and freckles.

There is no “cure” for hyperpigmentation, but there are plenty of products available to help you fade uneven patches of skin. In addition, if you prefer a quick fix you, can always visit an aesthetic doctor in Singapore for special facials or laser treatments.

If you have the patience to fight hyperpigmentation at home, though, here are a few star skincare ingredients that will help lighten discolouration.

1. Niacinamide 

Niacinamide is common in brightening and whitening products because of its anti-inflammatory properties. It also prevents your skin from producing more melanin, which is responsible for dark pigmentation on your skin. By preventing your skin from making more melanin, you are effectively stopping any hyperpigmentation from worsening while also healing it. Look for this ingredient in concentrations up to 5 percent for maximum effect.

2. Vitamin C 

Vitamin C comes in many forms, so any skin type can benefit from its antioxidant and melanin-inhibiting properties. L-ascorbic acid is the most common type, but other, gentler forms exist for those with sensitive skin. Vitamin C is also photoprotective, which means it helps protect your skin from the sun’s harmful rays while you repair the damage.

3. Retinoids 

Retinoids are vitamin A derivatives that can be found over-the-counter and by prescription. Most products that contain retinoids are marketed as anti-aging because they help speed skin cell turnover and increase collagen production. This means your face can shed damaged skin cells faster, revealing fresh, even-toned skin underneath.


4. Alpha Hydroxy Acid 

Alpha hydroxy acids, or AHAs, are naturally occurring acids that can be used to shed hyperpigmented skin cells faster. They are also helpful for unclogging pores and refining skin texture, which can help prevent breakouts that cause more discolouration. It’s best to start with a low concentration product and introduce it slowly to see the quickest results.

5. Hydroquinone 

Hydroquinone is the most effective way to fight hyperpigmentation. It targets the melanin production centers of your skin, which means you only need to use it as a spot treatment. A two percent concentration is enough to see noticeable results.

As always, the most effective treatment is prevention. That means dedicated, daily use of a broad-spectrum sunscreen on exposed skin. Long-term use of the ingredients in this post will help make your skin flawless with no makeup necessary.


How Often Should You Clean Your Face?

There are a few things to consider when answering this question. One important thing to consider is the fact that there has never been a comprehensive study conducted to find out if there are any serious drawbacks facing people who wash their face frequently.

Therefore, our advice comes from dermatologists who speak directly from experience. It certainly seems important to point out that the best facial washis compatible with your unique skin. It is also important to distinguish between the different types of face-washing procedures because they might serve different purposes. If your face gets dirty, clean it right away, for example.
Frequency of Face Washing 

Common knowledge about washing the face is fairly simple. Most experts suggest washing once in the morning and once at night. However, some doctors now recommend only washing at night. There are other things to consider as well. Frequency is just one part of this issue because various products produce different results. In addition, it is important to use products that are free from harsh chemicals.

The best facial wash is a product that allows you to clean the face multiple times comfortably. However, certain types of products can dry out the skin, which will probably reduce the number of times you want to wash your face. Many synthetic soaps are appropriate for daily washing because they are formulated so that the product remains close to the pH level of the skin.
Environmental Impacts 

Many people experience visible changes in their skin over time, and this is normal. Aging skin has different properties than young skin, so it is important to adapt to these changes as you grow older. One of the environmental conditions that can affect skin texture is the amount of sun exposure over a lifetime. This exposure can produce blemishes, wrinkles and lines. It can also reduce the amount of elasticity in the skin, and this can ultimately influence the amount of times you are comfortable washing your face. As a rule of thumb, the best type of facial treatmentis the one that produces positive results.
Facial Treatment for Sensitive Skin 

People who have extremely sensitive skin may need to consider a few extra things when deciding how often to wash the face. One of these items is the ingredients of the skin cleanser. Using an acidic cleaner will be more likely to irritate the skin than an alkaline face wash. For example, certain types of soaps can dry out the skin or cause irritation, and this includes even mild soap designed for people with soft, sensitive skin.

Exfoliating should not be done every day because this is too harsh for the skin, which needs to recover. When applying an exfoliating scrub, only use light pressure. It is a mistake to rub the skin vigorously, for this can cause excess irritation. This can be done once or twice a month, and it is a great way to remove the dead skin cells from the dermal surface.



The Challenges of Treating Shoulder Pain in Athletes


Athletes participating in sports that require a quick acceleration and deceleration of the arm, such as baseball and softball pitchers, tennis players, handball players, and javelin throwers, are particularly susceptible to developingshoulder pain. This is due to the extreme amount of stress that these activities place on the joints that make up the shoulder. The following examines why the treatment of these types of injuries is often challenging and unpredictable.
Identifying the Cause of Shoulder Pain:

Shoulder problems are one of the more difficult sports-related injuries to diagnose. First, the shoulder is made up of four joints. An issue with any of these joints can result in pain and impaired athletic performance. Injuries can also affect structures located deep within the shoulder, which makes them difficult examine manually. Finally, different kinds of injuries can cause similar type pain. For example, rotator cuff tendonitis, bicep tendonitis, and a rotator cuff tear can all cause pain at the front of the shoulder. This is where the clinician has to utilise a systematic exam approach and rely on their experience to determine which group of symptoms and findings should be considered abnormal for the particular patient.
Shoulder Pain Treatment:

Shoulder problems often develop during adolescence. Overuse and growth plate injuries are the most common problems seen in adolescent athletes. Rest is one of the best ways to prevent fatigue and injuries; however, prolonged rest should be avoided since that can lead to deconditioning. Ice therapy and over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatories can help reduce pain and inflammation. Physical therapy may also be beneficial in restoring proper muscle balance. Arthroscopic surgery may be required if conservative treatments are unsuccessful. The type of surgery required and the level of performance that can be expected post-surgery varies with the kind of injury.

At Providence Orthopaedic Singapore, we specialise in arthroscopic surgery and the treatment of various types of sports injuries. We offer a variety of medical and surgical treatments for shoulder pain that are designed to help you get back to work and play.


Cataract Advice from Eye Doctors

Eye cataracts are a common defect among many people. This is usually evidenced by the clouding of the lens and thus causing them to get translucent. In as much as many people tend to ignore it, the defect is the most prevalent source of blindness among people who are 40 years old and above. The disorder mostly arises from aging.

cataract_typesTypes of Cataracts 

It often affects the back-side of the lens. Subcaspular cataracts are most prevalent among people who take substances containing high levels of steroids and also those who are affected by diabetes. The chemical substances in drugs used to treat diabetes and steroids affects the lens, thus making the eyes to have a milky appearance.

This condition forms in the deep-lying and central parts of the lens. It is not caused by chemical agents but rather by the ageing process. This condition causes blindness among many old people.

This type of cataract is often evidenced by cloudy mistiness, which starts forming at the edge of the lens and slowly moves towards the centre. Their movement usually leaves behind a characteristic spoke-like pattern. Corticals rank as the most common type of cataracts.

Signs and Symptoms 

This disorder mostly starts on a small scale and gradually develops within the eye. Initially, patients experience marginal hitches in their vision. Most victims attest to the fact that at the beginning, it is akin to looking through a milky piece of glass. It has also been noted that those who are afflicted start getting affected by light of low intensity. Their colour visibility also plummets. In addition, they find it hard to drive at night. It has been discovered that nuclear cataracts may cause a temporal enhancement in the vision of the sufferer. This is however short lived and wanes out after a few days.


The most effective way of keeping the condition at bay is avoiding risk factors, which include continued exposure to intense UVB and smoking. Wearing sunglasses particularly in summer is important because it slows down the development of the disorder. It is also advisable to increase the uptake of antioxidants and foods that contain lutein and zeaxanthuin, which help protect the eyes.

3-ways-to-prevent-progression-of-cataracts-720x405 Interventions Available 

Those who are affected by this disorder need to have a Singapore eye centre contact. Such a specialist is of importance when it comes to offering advice about the most suitable intervention. Nonetheless, surgeries are the most common method used to correct the defect. This is done to remove the cloudy particles, which are the cause of vision impairment. The most common type of surgery conducted is phacoemulsification, which involves the use of ultrasonic energy to clean up the affected lens.

In extreme cases, the entire lens is removed and replaced with a synthetic one. Though expensive, this procedure has a relatively high success rate. A Singapore eye centre contact often advices patients to thoroughly clean their hands after the operation to prevent reinfection of the eyes whenever they touch them. In addition, patients must take all the prescribed medication, eat healthily and avoid the risk factors, which might cause the reoccurrence of the illness. To read more about the disorder, click on the links: and

Where Does Cellulite Come From?

Woman squeezing fat on thigh as she holds orange

Cellulite. Women dread it, no one wants it, and everyone who has it wants it gone. But what is it? Where does it come from? Finally, how do you get rid of it? If you want to get rid of cellulite, it takes more than weight loss. Even if you find slimming pills in Singapore that help you to shed tens to hundreds of pounds, or have liposuction surgery, cellulite may still be a problem.

What is Cellulite 
Cellulite is fatty tissue that is the same as the rest of the white adipose tissue that lives under your skin. In some places, the texture of it is smooth, while in other places, it is more like the lumpy surface that you know as cellulite. Sometimes, a fatty area will be smooth until you are on a weight loss diet, and the fat doesn’t disappear evenly, leaving cellulite behind. Though women are more likely to get cellulite than men, every race and age of women may have cellulite spots.

what-is-cellulite How Does Cellulite Happen? 
One of the most common questions asked by women who have cellulite is where does it come from. There are a number of conflicting theories on the origin of these skin lumps and bumps. Some believe it is due to poor drainage of the lymphatic system in your body, while others think it’s due to tight clothing squeezing your body into unnatural shapes. A third theory popular with many doctors and aestheticians is that it has to do with skin and connective tissue thickness and direction. Women are more likely to get cellulose than men, and their skin layer, or dermis, tends to be thinner than a man’s skin. This may leave room for cellulite to erupt. If connective tissue, the cobwebs that hold every part of your body into its correct place, is thick enough, then it won’t move or give way when your body grows and shrinks, like on a diet, and pushes some of the fatty tissue into cellulite pockets. If the direction of your skin cells and your connective tissues form a cross-hatch, which happens genetically, then you are less likely to have problems with cellulite. If they follow the same lines, then you are more likely. Luckily, there are lots of great ways to treat cellulite.

Thermage Cellulite Treatment 
There are a lot of great cellulite treatments to try that can help to remove the appearance of cellulite patches through different kinds of strategies. Here is a look at some of the different treatments, and where to find them:

  • Laser Lipo: This requires a plastic surgeon, and is believed to be very effective.
  • Ultrasound and Massage: This technique was developed in Brazil, and is popular with women before they ever have problems with cellulite. Many spas offer this service.
  • Skin Thickening Creams and Treatments: Spas and cosmetics counters offer collagen creams which can help to keep skin young and flexible enough to push collagen back in its place.
  • Lymph Draining Treatments: This can happen in an exercise class, a clinic, or a spa. It helps to get the toxins in your body moving out so inflammation can stop and skin can be smoother.

The right treatment for you will vary based on the location of your cellulite, and the time and money you have to treat it. However, many people have found success and hope in many of these cellulite reduction processes.


What You Can Do Today To Finally Eliminate Your Skin Pigmentation Problems

skin pigmentation

Pigmentation problems with the skin are common around Singapore. Any number of issues could lead to dark or discoloured spots from sun exposure to age and genetics. Modern techniques have been developed over the last few decades that can directly address these spots no matter how dark or large. Here are some of the things that you can do today to eliminate your pigmentation problems.

blog_img02 Reducing Sun Exposure 

Something that you should always do when coping with pigmentation problems is to reduce your sun exposure. The sunlight in Singapore is incredibly strong even when it is cloudy outside. Stay out of direct sun as much as possible. Do not tan, use tanning beds or try tanning creams. Wear sunscreen when going outside even for short periods. The sun can damage your skin and cause new pigmentation issues to arise or worsen existing dark spots.

antiaging-in-page Bleaching Your Skin 

One of the most common solutions for skin pigmentation problems is using professional bleaching products. Some you can get from a clinic in Singapore while others are available over the counter. These are products like hydroquinone. The products can lighten your blemishes and dark spots providing a more even complexion. If you get the products from a clinic, then they can often be combined with other professional treatments.

vaccuum-suction-01 Microdermabrasion 

Microdermabrasion is a procedure done throughout Singapore to remove damaged layers of skin. The process involves using very small beads directed through a machine at the face. The beads are incredibly small. They gradually break away dead or damaged skin. This reveals new skin underneath that might not have the same pigmentation problems. Microdermabrasion can be very effective in certain circumstance although it does not always work on very dark spots.

chemical2 Chemical Peels 

Chemical peels are similar to microdermabrasion although they can work even for very severe pigmentation issues. This procedure involves covering the face or skin with special chemical mixtures. Those chemicals will cause the topmost layers of skin to peel away completely. This quickly exposes new skin cells that will be paler and more consistent than the top layers. Different types of peels are available in Singapore depending on your exact skin issues and the results you want. You usually have to prepare for a few weeks in advance before going into a centre for a chemical peel.

Microdermabrasion_Dermabrasion_770_345_90_s_c1 Laser Treatments 

One of the most modern ways to eliminate pigmentation problems is through laser treatments. These treatments involve destroying the offending pigments by using specially crafted and configured laser systems. Laser treatments need to be administered by an aesthetic doctor in Singapore or other highly trained professional. Laser treatments can be incredibly effective for nearly any type of condition. They can also restore lost collagen to minimise the appearance of scars or wrinkles.
There is no reason to suffer with pigmentation issues any more. You can have clear and even skin if you take action today. This can potentially improve your self-image and remove many anxieties about being out in public. Taking any one of these actions could greatly improve the appearance of your skin fast.


Laparoscopic Surgery


product_2Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgery involving the use of small cameras and thin surgical instruments often used for colorectal surgery, vascular surgery and even weight loss surgery. During this type of surgery, small incisions no larger than a half an inch are created in the skin where thin plastic tubes are then placed. These plastic tubes allow the insertion of a camera and surgical instruments, which in turn allows access to the patient’s organs.
Also attached to the laparoscope is a fiber optic cable system. This system is connected to a light source to let the surgeon clearly see what they are doing in the operative field. The abdomen is also bloated with carbon dioxide, which raises the abdominal wall above the organs, thus creating space to work and more viewing area. Carbon Dioxide is used due to the fact that it is not a foreign substance to the human body, and it can be absorbed and removed by the body on its own through the respiratory system. Carbon Dioxide is also non-flammable. This is vital because oftentimes surgery involves electrosurgical devices that can potentially catch on fire.
Post 2
The camera conveys the image of the inside of the patient onto a monitor. Because surgeons cannot see what they are doing inside of a patient without a large incision, this allows the camera to act as the eye of the surgeon, making the surgery less invasive than traditional surgery.
There are several benefits to laparoscopic surgery. The patient is likely to experience less post-operative discomfort due to the small incision, and therefore have a faster recovery time. This also allows the patient to stay at the hospital for a shorter period of time and return to their normal lifestyle quicker. A large scar is not created during minimally invasive surgery and the chance for infection decreases greatly.

MODEL RELEASED. Slipped disc microendoscopy surgery. Surgeon performing an operation on a herniated (slipped) intervertebral disc using microendoscopic discectomy (MED) tools. A slipped disc is where an intervertebral disc between two of the vertebrae in
Minimally invasive surgery can, however, put limits on the surgeon’s ability to do the job needed. The surgeon’s hand performs several surgical functions that cannot be reproduced by the laparoscopic instruments. This may limit the use of minimally invasive surgery for those performed on the liver, pancreas, and stomach, due to the need for the surgeon to work with his or her hands directly.
However, there is a new type of laparoscopic device called a hand-access device. These devices allow the doctor to place their hand inside of the abdominal cavity during surgery, therefore being able to perform several functions that were previously only possible during an open, invasive surgery.

Keeping Your Acne Under Control

Do you suffer from acne? Acne is a common issue that many people in their teens, twenties and beyond, everyday. The thing about acne is that it can be kept under control, with the right cocktail of products and a little time. There are several things that you can try to help ease the pain and unsightly strains of acne breakouts, but first things first, you must take care of your skin!

477105330_XSWhat exactly is acne, you may ask? Acne is a skin condition that causes pimples and/or blackheads when your skin follicles mix with oil and dead skin cells. Acne can be quite painful, and something that gives you far less confidence in your appearance. The important thing is to know that you CAN rid your acne.

Keeping your facial skin clean and moisturized is more half the battle. There are many products to choose from but you will need something that isn’t too harsh on the skin if you suffer major breakouts. Belif skincare offers a wide variety of skincare products targeted towards healthy, refined pores. For example, they have a first aid mask that clears your skin in minutes and clears your pores, but at the same time, leaves your skin moisturized. Talk about a miracle in a jar! They also offer several moisturizers and moisturizers if you need the extra boost for very dry skin.

Hada-Labo-copyAnother alternative would be to look into Hada Labo products. This line of skincare features a facial wash, beneficial to those with acne prone skin. Also, most of their products contain hyalauronic acid, which adds anti-aging benefits to your daily skin regimen. These products are very popular worldwide, and are said to being great results to your skin.

Depending on the severity of your acne, you may need to supplement your skincare routine with other products, but skincare lines like Hada Labo and Belif help you to regain balance in your skin. Keeping your skin healthy is most important, and when you keep it clean and moisturized, your acne is likely to diminish with time and care.